A purchased lot of the antibiotic hygromycin B was found to be contaminated with a novel bacterial species, which we designate Pseudomonas hygromyciniae. Characteristics of P. hygromyciniae include its ability to use a variety of compounds as carbon sources, its pathogenicity towards lettuce and Galleria mellonella, and its ability to inhibit the growth of an E. coli strain. P. hygromyciniae is unlikely to be a human pathogen, as it did not survive at 37 °C and was not cytotoxic towards a mammalian cell line. The P. hygromyciniae strain harbors a novel 250 kb megaplasmid which confers resistance to hygromycin B and contains numerous other genes predicted to encode replication and conjugation machinery. These findings indicate that commercially manufactured antibiotics represent another extreme environment that may support the growth of novel bacterial species.
This is a companion discussion topic for the original entry at https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.06.463447