Interest in IgA as an alternative therapeutic and diagnostic antibody has increased over the years, yet much remains to be investigated especially given their importance in activating immune cells in blood and in mucosal immunity. Recent whole antibody-based investigations have shown significant distal effects between the variable (V) and constant (C)-regions that can be mitigated by the different hinge regions of the human IgA subtypes A1 and A2. Diving deeper into the mechanisms underlying this, systematic VH manipulations retaining the CDRs were performed on a panel of 28 IgA1s and A2s across the Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab models, revealed distal effects on FcαRI binding. Further insights from structural modelling showed these effects to also be mitigated by the differing glycosylation patterns in IgA1 and 2 to explain reversal of trends of IgA1s and 2s effected by slight changes in the CDRs. IgAs bound at the Fc showed similar trends but magnitudes better binding to Her2 with that bound by ppL, showing that ppL can sterically hinder Her2 antigen binding. Contrary to canonical knowledge, we found strong evidence of IgAs binding SpG that was narrowed to be at the CH2-3 region, and that the likely binding with SpA was beyond VH3 FWR and most likely at the CH1. VH1 was found to be the most suitable framework (FWRs) for CDR-grafting for both IgA1 and 2. With relevance to interactions with the microbiome at mucosal surfaces, mechanistic insight of how these IgAs can interact bacterial superantigens proteins G, A, and L are also discovered for potential future interventions.
This is a companion discussion topic for the original entry at https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.09.27.461897